AIP Grants

Airport Infrastructure Grants: Airport Infrastructure Grants are federal funds provided by the FAA to support a wide range of airport infrastructure projects aimed at enhancing safety, capacity, and operational efficiency. These grants may fund runway rehabilitation, taxiway construction, terminal renovations, airfield lighting upgrades, and other critical infrastructure improvements. Airport Infrastructure Grants play a vital role in maintaining and modernizing airport facilities to meet current and future aviation needs.

Air Traffic Control Tower Construction Program (ATCTCP)

A grant program that provides funding to airports for the construction, renovation, or expansion of air traffic control towers to enhance the safety and efficiency of air traffic management operations.

Airport Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) Program

A program that promotes the participation of disadvantaged business enterprises in airport contracting and procurement opportunities. DBE grants may support capacity building, mentorship programs, and business development initiatives for eligible firms.

Airport Improvement Program

A federal grant program administered by the FAA to fund airport infrastructure projects, such as runway rehabilitation, taxiway construction, and terminal upgrades.

Airport Layout Plan (ALP)

A graphical representation of the airport's current and proposed facilities, infrastructure, and land use designations. The ALP depicts the airport's physical layout, including runway configurations, taxiway layouts, terminal facilities, and land use boundaries, to guide future development and expansion.

Airport Master Plan

A comprehensive planning document that outlines the long-term development vision and strategy for an airport. It includes analyses of current and future aviation demand, facility requirements, environmental considerations, and financial feasibility. Airport Master Plans serve as a roadmap for guiding airport development and investment decisions over a 20 to 30-year horizon.

Airport Planning and Environmental Program (APEP)

A grant program that supports airport planning, environmental assessments, and regulatory compliance efforts related to airport development projects. Funding may be used for environmental studies, noise mitigation measures, and land use planning.

Airport Rescue and Firefighting (ARFF) Grants

Grants provided by the FAA to assist airports in acquiring firefighting and rescue equipment, training personnel, and implementing emergency response capabilities to enhance aviation safety and security.

Airport Sponsor Assurances Program

A program that provides grants to airport sponsors to fulfill their obligations and responsibilities under federal grant agreements, such as maintaining safe and efficient airport operations, complying with regulatory requirements, and ensuring equitable access to airport facilities.

Capacity Analysis

An assessment of the airport's ability to accommodate current and forecasted levels of aviation activity without exceeding operational or safety thresholds. Capacity analyses evaluate the performance of airside and landside facilities, airspace constraints, and regulatory requirements to identify capacity constraints and optimization opportunities.

Cargo Airport Program (CAP)

A grant program that provides funding to airports for infrastructure improvements and enhancements to support the efficient movement of air cargo, including cargo apron expansion, warehouse construction, and cargo handling facilities.

Customer Facility Charges (CFCs)

Fees charged by airports to help finance facility improvements such as terminal expansions or runway upgrades. While rental car companies may be one of the parties that airports charge CFCs to, it's not exclusive to them. CFCs can be levied on a variety of airport users or customers, depending on the specific agreements and regulations in place at each airport.


Discretionary grants are funds awarded by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to airports for specific projects or initiatives that contribute to the safety, efficiency, and capacity of the national air transportation system. Unlike entitlement grants, which are allocated based on predetermined criteria, discretionary grants are competitively awarded based on merit and priority criteria established by the FAA. Airports must submit grant applications outlining their project proposals and demonstrating the potential benefits to the air transportation system. Discretionary grants support a wide range of projects, including runway rehabilitation, terminal expansions, air traffic control enhancements, and environmental mitigation efforts. The FAA evaluates grant applications and selects projects that best align with national priorities and funding availability.

*AIP includes both types of grants, it's important to note that the specific type of grant within the AIP can vary depending on the project and the airport's eligibility criteria.

Discretionary Grants

Grants awarded by the FAA to airports for specific projects or initiatives that contribute to the national air transportation system's safety, efficiency, and capacity. These grants are allocated based on merit and priority criteria.


Entitlement grants are funds allocated to airports based on predetermined criteria, such as passenger enplanements and landed weights. These grants provide a guaranteed level of funding to eligible airports, typically smaller airports and general aviation facilities, to support infrastructure improvements and safety enhancements. The allocation of entitlement grants is formula-based and ensures equitable distribution of federal funds to airports across the country. Entitlement grants are intended to help maintain and upgrade facilities at smaller airports serving general aviation activities.

Environmental Impact Assessment

An evaluation of the potential environmental effects associated with airport development projects, including impacts on air quality, noise levels, water resources, wildlife habitat, and cultural resources. Environmental impact assessments are conducted to identify mitigation measures and ensure compliance with regulatory requirements.

Essential Air Service (EAS) Program

A federal program that provides financial assistance to airlines serving small communities to ensure access to the national air transportation system. EAS funding may support essential air service routes and operations at eligible airports.

Facility Requirements Assessment (Inventory)

An analysis conducted as part of the Airport Master Plan process to determine the type and size of facilities needed to accommodate forecasted aviation demand. Facility requirements assessments consider factors such as terminal capacity, aircraft parking aprons, runway lengths, and support facilities (e.g., hangars, maintenance facilities).

Financial Feasibility Analysis

An evaluation of the financial viability and funding mechanisms for implementing proposed airport development projects identified in the Master Plan. Financial feasibility analyses assess revenue sources, cost estimates, funding gaps, and financing options to support capital investments and operational expenses.

General Aviation Airport Improvement Program (GA AIP)

A grant program that provides funding for infrastructure improvements at general aviation airports, including runway maintenance, hangar construction, and safety enhancements.

General Aviation (GA) Entitlement Program

Grants allocated to general aviation airports based on passenger enplanements and landed weights to support infrastructure improvements and safety enhancements. GA entitlement grants help maintain and upgrade facilities at smaller airports serving general aviation activities.

Innovative Pavement Research Program

Grants provided to airports for research and development projects aimed at advancing pavement technologies, materials, and design practices to improve runway, taxiway, and apron surfaces' durability and performance.

Land Use Compatibility Planning

The process of evaluating land use patterns and zoning regulations surrounding an airport to minimize incompatible development that could affect airport operations or safety. Land use compatibility planning aims to mitigate noise, safety hazards, and airspace obstructions near airports while promoting compatible land uses.

Military Airport Program (MAP)

Grants provided to assist state and local governments in converting former military airports to civilian use or improving existing military airfields for joint military-civilian operations. MAP grants support infrastructure improvements and safety enhancements at eligible military airports.

National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS)

NPIAS is a strategic planning document developed by the FAA in collaboration with state aviation agencies and airport sponsors to identify and prioritize airport development projects. It categorizes airports based on their role in the national air transportation system, such as commercial service airports, reliever airports, and general aviation airports. NPIAS helps guide federal funding allocation and investment decisions to support the development and modernization of airports nationwide.

Noise Compatibility Program (NCP) Grant

Grants available to airports for noise mitigation measures aimed at reducing the impact of aircraft noise on surrounding communities. NCP grants may fund sound insulation of residential buildings, acquisition of noise-sensitive properties, and implementation of noise abatement procedures.

Non-Aeronautical Revenue

Revenue generated from activities that are not directly related to aviation. These may include revenue from retail and dining concessions, rental car operations, advertising space rentals, and parking fees. Non-aeronautical revenue sources diversify an airport's income streams and can contribute significantly to its overall financial health.

Non-Operating Revenue

Revenue generated from sources outside the core operations of the airport, such as investment income, grants, and subsidies. Non-operating revenue supplements operating revenue and may be used to fund capital projects, debt service, or other non-operational expenses.

Non-primary Airport Improvement Program (AIP)

Grants awarded to non-primary airports (general aviation airports, reliever airports, and non-primary commercial service airports) for eligible infrastructure projects to enhance safety, capacity, and operational efficiency.

Nonpassenger Aeronautical Revenue

Revenue generated from activities related to aviation but not directly tied to passenger services. Examples include aircraft landing fees, aircraft parking fees, and fuel sales to aircraft. Nonpassenger aeronautical revenue comes from services provided to airlines and other aviation-related entities.

Operating Revenue

Revenue generated from an airport's primary activities, including aeronautical and non-aeronautical sources. Operating revenue is essential for covering day-to-day operating expenses, such as personnel costs, maintenance, utilities, and administrative expenses.

Passenger Aeronautical Revenue

Revenue generated from activities directly related to serving passengers, such as ticket sales, baggage fees, and passenger facility charges (PFCs). This revenue is derived from services provided to passengers as they travel through the airport.

Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Program:

Although not a grant program administered directly by the FAA, the PFC Program enables airports to generate revenue through passenger facility charges levied on airline tickets to finance eligible airport improvement projects. PFC funds supplement federal grants and other sources of airport funding.

Passenger Facility Charges (PFCs)

Fees collected by airports from passengers as part of their ticket fares, which are used to finance airport improvement projects, including terminal expansions and facility enhancements.

* Airports are not generally allowed to use revenue generated from projects funded with PFCs for purposes other than those specified in the approved PFC application. PFC revenue is subject to strict oversight and compliance with FAA regulations to ensure transparency and accountability in these funds' use.

Phasing Plan

A strategic implementation plan that sequences and prioritizes airport development projects over time based on funding availability, operational needs, and environmental considerations. Phasing plans define short-term, medium-term, and long-term development stages to guide the orderly and cost-effective implementation of the Airport Master Plan.

Primary Airport Improvement Program (AIP)

Grants provided to primary airports (commercial service airports with more than 10,000 annual passenger boardings) for eligible airport improvement projects, such as runway rehabilitation, taxiway construction, and terminal upgrades.

Research and Development Grants

Grants awarded by the FAA to support research, technology development, and innovation in aviation-related fields. These grants fund projects aimed at improving aviation safety, efficiency, and environmental sustainability.

Runway Incursion Mitigation (RIM) Program

Grants provided to airports for projects aimed at reducing the risk of runway incursions, such as installing runway status lights, upgrading signage and markings, and implementing advanced surface surveillance technologies.

Runway Safety Grants

Grants awarded by the FAA to airports for runway safety improvement projects, such as runway incursion mitigation measures, runway lighting upgrades, and pavement markings enhancements.

Small Airport Improvement Program (SAIP)

Grants designated for small airports with limited commercial service or general aviation operations to fund essential infrastructure projects, such as runway repairs, navigational aids installation, and terminal upgrades.

Small Community Air Service Development Program (SCASDP)

A grant program that assists small communities in enhancing air service connectivity and improving access to the national air transportation system. SCASDP funding may support marketing initiatives, route development efforts, and air service incentives.

Stakeholder Engagement

The process of involving various stakeholders, including airport users, local communities, government agencies, and regulatory authorities, in the Airport Master Planning process. Stakeholder engagement fosters collaboration, transparency, and consensus-building to address diverse interests and concerns.

State Block Grant Program (SBGP)

A grant program through which the FAA allocates funding to state aviation agencies to support airport development and improvement projects within their respective states.

State Grant Funds



Issue Debt

General Obligation

Revenue Bonds

Special Facility


Supplemental Discretionary Grants

discretionary grants awarded by the FAA to address urgent infrastructure needs, promote innovative solutions, or support special initiatives to enhance airport safety, security, and resilience.